Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of clinical pharmacy services on health outcomes and medication adherence concerning hypertension and diabetes in the homeless population. Methods: This was a retrospective quasi-experimental study conducted between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2016. The primary outcomes included median blood pressure and median glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) change from baseline. The secondary end points included adherence to hypertension and diabetes medication, in addition to the differences in the number of admissions to urgent care clinics, emergency departments, or hospitals pre- and postpharmacist clinic visit. Results: One-hundred ninety-eight homeless patients were seen by a pharmacist over the study time frame, and 116 of these patients were included. There was a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the 6-months postpharmacist visit (139 mm Hg vs. 135 mm Hg, P = 0.413, and 85 mm Hg vs. 82 mm Hg, P = 0.197, respectively). The percentage of patients who met the blood pressure goals increased from 55% to 66% (P = 0.093). A statistically significant decrease in A1C was found (7.7% vs 7.2%, P = 0.038). The number of patients who met the A1C goal increased from 20% to 41% (P = 0.267) after pharmacist intervention. No medication class was associated with a median proportion of days covered of 80% or greater. However, differences were seen with biguanides (34% vs. 43%, P = 0.004), calcium channel blockers (44% vs. 59%, P < 0.001), and thiazides (28% vs. 39%, P = 0.039) pre- and postintervention. There was no difference in the number of visits to emergency departments or urgent care clinics, or hospitalizations. Conclusion: Homeless patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes who had at least 1 visit with a pharmacist showed some improved health outcomes. Statistically significant benefits were seen in diabetes management, but not for blood pressure control.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (nursing)