Pharmacodynamics and bactericidal activity of ceftriaxone therapy in experimental cephalosporin-resistant pneumococcal meningitis

Irja Lutsar, Amina Ahmed, Ian R. Friedland, Monica Trujillo, Loretta Wubbel, Kurt Olsen, George H. McCracken

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

54 Scopus citations

Abstract

Adequate concentrations of β-lactam antibiotics in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are difficult to achieve for meningitis caused by drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Ceftriaxone in dosages of 150 or 400 mg/kg of body weight per day, given in one or two doses, was used for the treatment of experimental highly cephalosporin-resistant (MIC and MBC, 4 μg/ml) pneumococcal meningitis. The bacterial killing rate (Δlog10 CFU per milliliter per hour) and pharmacokinetic indices, including percentage of time the antibiotic concentration exceeded the MBC during a 24-h period (T>MBC), CSF peak concentration above the MBC, and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h above MBC, were measured and correlated. By multiple stepwise regression, only T>MBC independently predicted the bacterial killing rate. There was a direct linear correlation between T>MBC in CSF and the bacterial killing rate during the first 24 h of therapy (r = 0.87; P = 0.004). Sterilization of CSF was achieved only when the T>MBC was 95 to 100%. In the first 24 h, the 200-mg/kg/12-h regimen, compared with the 400-mg/kg/24-h regimen, was associated with a greater T>MBC (87% ± 10% versus 60% ± 22%; P = 0.03) and greater bacterial killing rate (0.2 ± 0.04 versus 0.13 ± 0.07; P = 0.003), confirming that ceftriaxone exhibits time-dependent bactericidal activity. After 24 h, the T>MBC and the CSF sterilization rates were similar whether ceftriaxone was given once or twice daily.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2414-2417
Number of pages4
JournalAntimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
Volume41
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1997

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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