Pharmacodynamics of gatifloxacin in cerebrospinal fluid in experimental cephalosporin-resistant pneumococcal meningitis

Irja Lutsar, Ian R. Friedland, Loretta Wubbel, Cynthia C. McCoig, Hasan S. Jafri, Winston Ng, Faryal Ghaffar, George H. McCracken

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

57 Scopus citations

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pharmacodynamics of a new fluoroquinolone, gatifloxacin (AM-1155), in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. The penetration of gatifloxacin into CSF, calculated as the percentage of the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) in CSF over the AUC in blood, was 46 to 56%. Gatifloxacin showed linear pharmacokinetics in CSF, and 1 h after intravenous dosages of 7.5, 15, or 30 mg/kg of body weight, peak CSF concentrations were 0.46 ± 0.08 (mean ± standard deviation), 0.94 ± 0.16, and 1.84 ± 0.5 μg/ml, respectively. The elimination half-life of gatifloxacin in CSF was 3.8 to 5.6 h (compared with 2.7 to 3.2 h in blood). There was a significant interrelationship among the highest measured values of gatifloxacin in blood and CSF/minimal bactericidal concentration (C(peak)/MBC), the time antibiotic concentrations exceeded the MBC (T > MBC), and AUC/MBC (r = 0.94); in single-dose experiments, each correlated significantly with the bacterial killing rate. Divided-dose regimens, resulting in greater T > MBC values but lower C(peak)/MBC ratios, were more effective in terms of bacterial clearance compared with corresponding single-dose regimens. Gatifloxacin therapy was as effective as currently recommended regimens (e.g., a combination of ceftriaxone and vancomycin) against this highly cephalosporin-resistant pneumococcal strain. The bactericidal activity of gatifloxacin in CSF was closely related to the AUC/MBC ratio, but maximal activity was achieved only when drug concentrations exceeded the MBC for the entire dosing interval.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2650-2655
Number of pages6
JournalAntimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
Volume42
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1998

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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