This article discusses the pharmacologic approaches and the most promising new compounds for composite tissue allograft tolerance. Although some approaches rely on a combination of immunosuppressive agents that act synergistically against rejection, other strategies use immunologic manipulation, including major histocompatibility complex matching, induction of chimerism, and use of monoclonal antibodies to abrogate the immune response. There is still a need, however, to reproduce these findings in species phylogenetically closer to humans. This may be the target of future research efforts, which may overcome the challenge of limb and face transplant rejection.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine