Pharmacotherapies for Diabetes Management: An Update for the Practicing Clinician

Luigi Meneghini, Irl B. Hirsch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

Over the past several years, the pharmacologic options for the management of glycemic control have tremendously expanded. Whereas prior to the introduction of metformin therapy in 1995 the only alternatives were human insulin therapies and sulfonylurea drugs, we now have the option of using several different classes of oral antidiabetic drugs, injectable non-insulin therapies, and insulin analogs. In this article we present a functional classification of glycemic therapies available for the treatment of diabetes in an attempt to provide the clinician with a practical framework which optimize blood glucose management. Patients with diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes, are often managed with a wide variety of injectable and non-injectable options in the attempt to improve glycemic control and glycemic variability, minimize hypoglycemia (as well as weight gain) and prevent both micro- and macrovascular complications. We specifically focus on novel therapies and present macrovascular complications. We specifically focus on novel therapies and present information about their efficacy and safety, as well as potential contraindications. The last section of this paper will present some suggestions for how to manage glycmeia in the in-patient setting, including the use of rapid and long-acting insulin preparations to cover fasting and nutritional needs, as well as the proper use of insulin scales.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)379-389
Number of pages11
JournalSeminars in thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
Volume18
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2006

Keywords

  • glycemic targets
  • incretin therapy
  • insulin management
  • insulin therapy
  • oral antidiabetic agents
  • type 2 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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