Purpose: Efaproxiral (RSR13) reduces hemoglobin oxygen-binding affinity, facilitates oxygen release, and increases tissue pO2. We conducted a phase II multicenter study that assessed the efficacy and safety of efaproxiral when administered with thoracic radiation therapy (TRT), following induction chemotherapy, for treatment of locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods: Fifty-one patients with locally advanced NSCLC were enrolled at 13 sites. Treatment comprised two cycles of paclitaxel (225 mg/m2) and carboplatin (area under the curve, 6), 3 weeks apart, followed by TRT (64 Gy/32 fractions) with concurrent efaproxiral (50 to 100 mg/kg). Survival results were compared with results of study Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 94-10. Results: Overall response rate was 75% (37 of 49 patients). Complete and partial response rates were 6% (three of 49 patients) and 69% (34 of 49 patients), respectively. Median survival time (MST) was 20.6 months (95% CI, 14.0 to 24.2); overall survival rates at 1- and 2-years were 67% and 37%, respectively. Survival results were compared with the sequential (S-CRT) and concurrent (C-CRT) chemoradiotherapy arms of RTOG 94-10. MSTs for cases matched by stage, Karnofsky performance status, and age were: RT-010, 20.6 months; S-CRT, 15.1 months; and C-CRT, 17.9 months. Grade 3 to 4 toxicities related to efaproxiral that occurred in more than one patient included transient hypoxemia (19%), radiation pneumonitis (11%), and fatigue (4%). Conclusion: Addition of efaproxiral to SCRT represents a promising approach in NSCLC treatment, and a randomized study should be pursued. The low incidence of grade 3 to 4 toxicities suggests that the use of efaproxiral instead of a cytotoxic agent, as a radiation sensitizer, may be advantageous.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research