Phenotypic alteration of CD8+ T cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia is associated with epigenetic reprogramming

Jiazhu Wu, Xiaojing Xu, Eun Joon Lee, Austin Y. Shull, Lirong Pei, Farrukh Awan, Xiaoling Wang, Jeong Hyeon Choi, Libin Deng, Hong Bo Xin, Wenxun Zhong, Jinhua Liang, Yi Miao, Yujie Wu, Lei Fan, Jianyong Li, Wei Xu, Huidong Shi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Scopus citations

Abstract

Immunosuppression is a prevalent clinical feature in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients, with many patients demonstrating increased susceptibility to infections as well as increased failure of an antitumor immune response. However, much is currently not understood regarding the precise mechanisms that attribute to this immunosuppressive phenotype in CLL. To provide further clarity to this particular phenomenon, we analyzed the T-cell profile of CLL patient samples within a large cohort and observed that patients with an inverted CD4/CD8 ratio had a shorter time to first treatment as well as overall survival. These observations coincided with higher expression of the immune checkpoint receptor PD-1 in CLL patient CD8+ T cells when compared to age-matched healthy donors. Interestingly, we discovered that increased PD-1 expression in CD8+ T cells corresponds with decreased DNA methylation levels in a distal upstream locus of the PD-1 gene PDCD1. Further analysis using luciferase reporter assays suggests that the identified PDCD1 distal upstream region acts as an enhancer for PDCD1 transcription and this region becomes demethylated during activation of naïve CD8+ T cells by anti-CD3/anti-CD28 antibodies and IL2. Finally, we conducted a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis comparing CD8+ T cells from CLL patients against healthy donors and identified additional differentially methylated genes with known immune regulatory functions including CCR6 and KLRG1. Taken together, our findings reveal the occurrence of epigenetic reprogramming taking place within CLL patient CD8+ T cells and highlight the potential mechanism of how immunosuppression is accomplished in CLL.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)40558-40570
Number of pages13
JournalOncotarget
Volume7
Issue number26
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • CD8 T-cells
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
  • DNA methylation
  • PD-1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology

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    Wu, J., Xu, X., Lee, E. J., Shull, A. Y., Pei, L., Awan, F., Wang, X., Choi, J. H., Deng, L., Xin, H. B., Zhong, W., Liang, J., Miao, Y., Wu, Y., Fan, L., Li, J., Xu, W., & Shi, H. (2016). Phenotypic alteration of CD8+ T cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia is associated with epigenetic reprogramming. Oncotarget, 7(26), 40558-40570. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.9941