Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) has a variable clinical presentation due to the diversity of causative genetic mutations. Animal models allow in vivo study of genotypic expression through non-invasive imaging, pathologic sampling, and force analysis. This review focuses on the spontaneous and induced mutations in various animal models affecting mainly sarcomere proteins. The sarcomere is comprised of thick (myosin) filaments and related proteins including myosin heavy chain and myosin binding protein-C; thin (actin) filament proteins and their associated regulators including tropomyosin, troponin I, troponin C, and troponin T. The regulatory milieu including transcription factors and cell signaling also play a significant role. Animal models provide a layered approach of understanding beginning with the causative mutation as a foundation. The functional consequences of protein energy utilization and calcium sensitivity in vivo and ex vivo can be studied. Beyond pathophysiologic disruption of sarcomere function, these models demonstrate the clinical sequalae of diastolic dysfunction, heart failure, and arrhythmogenic death. Through this cascade of understanding the mutation followed by their functional significance, targeted therapies have been developed and are briefly discussed.
- Animal models of human disease
- Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
- Sudden cardiac death
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine