Recent attention has focused on the role keratinocytes (KC) may play in the induction of T cell-mediated inflammatory responses in skin, particularly because KC, when activated by immunologic stimuli, express MHC class II Ag and secrete immunomodulatory cytokines. We tested the capacity of normal human KC that were stimulated with PMA to induce PBMC proliferation. PMA-treated, but not untreated, KC induced proliferation of allogeneic as well as autologous PBMC; in addition, when purified CD4+ or CD8+ T cells were used as responders, each subset proliferated. PBMC proliferation was not due to direct action of PMA on PBMC, nor to contamination of KC cultures with Langerhans cells (LC) or dermal APC. Pretreatment with different protein kinase C inhibitors abrogated the capacity of PMA-stimulated KC to induce proliferation. Paraformaldehyde-fixed PMA-KC stimulated PBMC proliferation, whereas supernatants from PMA-treated KC failed to do so, indicating that a membrane-associated activity on PMA-KC contributes to the induction of PBMC proliferation. PMA induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression on KC; furthermore, mAb against ICAM-1 or against its ligand lymphocyte function-associated Ag (LFA-1) (CD11a/CD18) significantly, but incompletely, reduced the stimulatory capacity of PMA-treated KC, indicating that ICAM-1/LFA-1 interaction contributed to PBMC proliferation. IFN-γ or TNF-α also induced ICAM-1 of KC, but these KC failed to stimulate proliferation, suggesting that PMA induces additional signals from KC, which act in concert with ICAM-1 to promote proliferation. Finally, mAb against HLA-ABC or HLA-DR did not inhibit proliferation. We conclude that PMA can activate KC to stimulate T cell proliferation in a MHC-independent fashion. This activation is mediated by protein kinase C and in part by the induction of ICAM-1 expression of KC.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Journal of Immunology|
|State||Published - 1991|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy