The MAP kinase ERK2 is widely involved in eukaryotic signal transduction. Upon activation it translocates to the nucleus of the stimulated cell, where it phosphorylates nuclear targets. We find that nuclear accumulation of microinjected ERK2 depends on its phosphorylation state rather than on its activity or on upstream components of its signaling pathway. Phosphorylated ERK2 forms dimers with phosphorylated and unphosphorylated ERK2 partners. Disruption of dimerization by mutagenesis of ERK2 reduces its ability to accumulate in the nucleus, suggesting that dimerization is essential for its normal ligand-dependent relocalization. The crystal structure of phosphorylated ERK2 reveals the basis for dimerization. Other MAP kinase family members also form dimers. The generality of this behavior suggests that dimerization is part of the mechanism of action of the MAP kinase family.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)