Endergonic isomerizations are thermodynamically unfavored processes that are difficult to realize under thermal conditions. We report a photocatalytic and diastereoselective isomerization of acyclic cinnamyl chlorides to strained cyclopropanes. Quantum mechanical calculations (uM06-2X and DLPNO), including TD-DFT calculations, and experimental studies provide evidence for the energy transfer from an iridium photocatalyst to the allylic chloride substrate followed by C-Cl homolytic cleavage. Subsequent Clâ¢ radical migration forms a localized triplet 1,3-diradical intermediate that, after intersystem crossing, undergoes ring-closing to form the desired product. The mild reaction conditions are compatible with a broad range of functional groups to generate chlorocyclopropanes in high yields and diastereoselectivities. A more efficient process is developed by addition of a catalytic amount of a nickel complex, and we propose a novel role for this cocatalyst to recycle an allyl chloride byproduct generated in the course of the reaction. The reaction is also shown to be stereoconvergent, as an E/Z mixture of cinnamyl chlorides furnish the anti-chlorocyclopropane product in high diastereoselectivity. We anticipate that the use of a visible light activated photocatalyst to transform substrates in combination with a transition metal catalyst to recycle byproducts back into the catalytic cycle will provide unique opportunities for the discovery of new reactivity.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry