Phylogenetic variation and polymorphism at the toll-like receptor 4 locus (TLR4).

I. Smirnova, A. Poltorak, E. K. Chan, C. McBride, B. Beutler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

130 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Differences in responses to bacterial surface lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are apparent between and within mammalian species. It has been shown in mice that resistance to LPS is caused by defects in the Toll-like receptor 4 gene (Tlr4), the product of which is thought to bind LPS and mediate LPS signal transduction in immune system cells. RESULTS: We have sequenced the Toll-like receptor 4 gene of humans (TLR4; 19.0 kilobases, kb) and mice (Tlr4; 91.7 kb), as well as the coding region and splice junctions of Tlr4 from 35 mouse (Mus musculus) strains, from the chimpanzee and from the baboon. No other discernible genes or regions of interspecies conservation lies close to Tlr4 and, in both humans and mice, flanking sequences and introns are rich in repeats of retroviral origin. Interstrain analyses reveal that Tlr4 is a polymorphic protein and that the extracellular domain is far more variable than the cytoplasmic domain, both among strains and among species. The cytoplasmic domain of the Tlr4 protein is highly variable at the carboxy-terminal end. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that selective evolutionary pressure exerted by microbes expressing structurally distinguishable LPS molecules has produced the high level of variability in the Tlr4 extracellular domain. The highly variable carboxy-terminal region of the cytoplasmic domain is likely to determine the magnitude of the response to LPS within a species.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalGenome Biology
Volume1
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2000

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Toll-Like Receptor 4
polymorphism
genetic polymorphism
phylogenetics
Lipopolysaccharides
lipopolysaccharides
loci
gene
phylogeny
Genes
genes
mice
Pan troglodytes
Toll-like receptor 4
Papio
protein
immune system
Mus musculus
Introns
Immune System

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics

Cite this

Phylogenetic variation and polymorphism at the toll-like receptor 4 locus (TLR4). / Smirnova, I.; Poltorak, A.; Chan, E. K.; McBride, C.; Beutler, B.

In: Genome Biology, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2000.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Smirnova, I, Poltorak, A, Chan, EK, McBride, C & Beutler, B 2000, 'Phylogenetic variation and polymorphism at the toll-like receptor 4 locus (TLR4).', Genome Biology, vol. 1, no. 1.
Smirnova, I. ; Poltorak, A. ; Chan, E. K. ; McBride, C. ; Beutler, B. / Phylogenetic variation and polymorphism at the toll-like receptor 4 locus (TLR4). In: Genome Biology. 2000 ; Vol. 1, No. 1.
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