Purpose: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is characterized by translocation of intestinal endotoxin and subsequent endogenous production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). Plasma lipid fractions, especially high density lipoproteins, bind and neutralize endotoxin and, therefore, inhibit endotoxin-induced macrophage cytokine production, including IL-6. Increased IL-6 plasma levels have been implicated in adverse consequences associated with CPB. Previous studies demonstrated large interpatient variability in IL-6 plasma level after CPB. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between plasma lipid concentrations and the concentrations of IL-6 following CPB in humans. Methods: In a prospective study, a group of 15 patients selected to exclude variables known to influence post-CPB plasma levels of IL-6 (preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction >45%, similar durations of aortic cross clamping and total CPB time, similar temperature control during CPB, and avoidance of platelet transfusion and shed mediastinal blood re-infusion), IL-6 was measured at baseline, one and 24 hr post-CPB. Results: Interleukin-6 plasma concentrations (mean ± SD) increased at one (142 ± 89 pg·ml-1, P < 0.05) and 24 (129 ± 82 pg·ml-1, P < 0.05) hr post-CPB compared with baseline (1.5 ± 1 pg·ml-1) concentrations. An inverse correlation was found between IL-6 plasma concentrations at one hour post-CPB and plasma cholesterol concentrations (r = -0.592, P = 0.02), high density lipoprotein (r = -0.595, P = 0.02), and low density lipoprotein (r = -0.656, P = 0.01). Conclusions: These results suggest that plasma lipids attenuate the production of IL-6 during CPB and may partly explain the variability of interpatient levels of IL-6 reported post-CPB by others.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine