A subpopulation of plasma membrane-associated estrogen receptor (ER)α interact directly with G proteins and mediate nonnuclear receptor signaling. This mechanism underlies numerous processes, including important cardiovascular protective actions of estradiol (E2), such as the activation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and endothelial cell growth and migration. In the present work we sought a genetic approach to differentiate nonnuclear from nuclear ERa actions. We generated single alanine substitutions within the Gαi-binding domain of ERα (amino acids 251-260) and tested signaling to eNOS or ERK1,2 and activation of luciferase (Luc) reporters signifying transactivation via direct or indirect ERα-DNA binding in HeLa cells. The point mutants ERα-R256A, ERα-K257A, ERα-D258A, and ERα-R260A were all incapable of activating eNOS in response to E2, and ERα-R256A and ERα-D258A also showed loss of ERK1,2 activation. In contrast, ERα-R256A, ERα-K257A, ERα-D258A, and ERα-R260A all displayed normal capacity to invoke E2-induced trans-activation of estrogen response element (ERE)-Luc or Sp1-Luc. However, whereas activator protein 1-Luc activation by ERα-R256A and ERα-D258A was intact, ERα-K257A and ERα-R260A were incapable of activator protein 1-Luc activation. In in vitro pull-down assays with the two mutants that lack all nonnuclear functions tested and retain all nuclear functions tested, ERα-R256A and ERα-D258A, there was normal direct interaction between Gαi and ERα-R256A and an absence of interaction between Gαi and ERα-D258A. When expressed in endothelial cells, these two mutants prevented E2-induced migration and eNOS activation mediated by endogenous receptor, indicative of dominant-negative action. Thus, the point mutants ERα-R256A and ERα-D258A in the receptor GαI-binding domain provide genetic segregation of nonnuclear from nuclear ERα function.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology