Polyamine-independent growth and biofilm formation, and functional spermidine/spermine N-acetyltransferases in Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis

Bin Li, Yukari Maezato, Sok Ho Kim, Shin Kurihara, Jue Liang, Anthony J Michael

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Polyamines such as spermidine and spermine are primordial polycations that are ubiquitously present in the three domains of life. We have found that Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis have lost either all or most polyamine biosynthetic genes, respectively, and are devoid of any polyamine when grown in polyamine-free media. In contrast to bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Campylobacter jejuni and Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which absolutely require polyamines for growth, S. aureus and E. faecalis grow normally over multiple subcultures in the absence of polyamines. Furthermore, S. aureus and E. faecalis form biofilms normally without polyamines, and exogenous polyamines do not stimulate growth or biofilm formation. High levels of external polyamines, including norspermidine, eventually inhibit biofilm formation through inhibition of planktonic growth. We show that spermidine/spermine N-acetyltransferase (SSAT) homologues encoded by S. aureus USA300 and E. faecalis acetylate spermidine, spermine and norspermidine, that spermine is the more preferred substrate, and that E. faecalis SSAT is almost as efficient as human SSAT with spermine as substrate. The polyamine auxotrophy, polyamine-independent growth and biofilm formation, and presence of functional polyamine N-acetyltransferases in S. aureus and E. faecalis represent a new paradigm for bacterial polyamine biology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalMolecular Microbiology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018

Fingerprint

Acetyltransferases
Spermidine
Spermine
Enterococcus faecalis
Polyamines
Biofilms
Staphylococcus aureus
Growth
Agrobacterium tumefaciens
Campylobacter jejuni
Gram-Positive Bacteria
Pseudomonas aeruginosa

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Molecular Biology

Cite this

Polyamine-independent growth and biofilm formation, and functional spermidine/spermine N-acetyltransferases in Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. / Li, Bin; Maezato, Yukari; Kim, Sok Ho; Kurihara, Shin; Liang, Jue; Michael, Anthony J.

In: Molecular Microbiology, 01.01.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{64f14a1c97d746d3a62b5a9acf6558ac,
title = "Polyamine-independent growth and biofilm formation, and functional spermidine/spermine N-acetyltransferases in Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis",
abstract = "Polyamines such as spermidine and spermine are primordial polycations that are ubiquitously present in the three domains of life. We have found that Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis have lost either all or most polyamine biosynthetic genes, respectively, and are devoid of any polyamine when grown in polyamine-free media. In contrast to bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Campylobacter jejuni and Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which absolutely require polyamines for growth, S. aureus and E. faecalis grow normally over multiple subcultures in the absence of polyamines. Furthermore, S. aureus and E. faecalis form biofilms normally without polyamines, and exogenous polyamines do not stimulate growth or biofilm formation. High levels of external polyamines, including norspermidine, eventually inhibit biofilm formation through inhibition of planktonic growth. We show that spermidine/spermine N-acetyltransferase (SSAT) homologues encoded by S. aureus USA300 and E. faecalis acetylate spermidine, spermine and norspermidine, that spermine is the more preferred substrate, and that E. faecalis SSAT is almost as efficient as human SSAT with spermine as substrate. The polyamine auxotrophy, polyamine-independent growth and biofilm formation, and presence of functional polyamine N-acetyltransferases in S. aureus and E. faecalis represent a new paradigm for bacterial polyamine biology.",
author = "Bin Li and Yukari Maezato and Kim, {Sok Ho} and Shin Kurihara and Jue Liang and Michael, {Anthony J}",
year = "2018",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1111/mmi.14145",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "Molecular Microbiology",
issn = "0950-382X",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Polyamine-independent growth and biofilm formation, and functional spermidine/spermine N-acetyltransferases in Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis

AU - Li, Bin

AU - Maezato, Yukari

AU - Kim, Sok Ho

AU - Kurihara, Shin

AU - Liang, Jue

AU - Michael, Anthony J

PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - Polyamines such as spermidine and spermine are primordial polycations that are ubiquitously present in the three domains of life. We have found that Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis have lost either all or most polyamine biosynthetic genes, respectively, and are devoid of any polyamine when grown in polyamine-free media. In contrast to bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Campylobacter jejuni and Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which absolutely require polyamines for growth, S. aureus and E. faecalis grow normally over multiple subcultures in the absence of polyamines. Furthermore, S. aureus and E. faecalis form biofilms normally without polyamines, and exogenous polyamines do not stimulate growth or biofilm formation. High levels of external polyamines, including norspermidine, eventually inhibit biofilm formation through inhibition of planktonic growth. We show that spermidine/spermine N-acetyltransferase (SSAT) homologues encoded by S. aureus USA300 and E. faecalis acetylate spermidine, spermine and norspermidine, that spermine is the more preferred substrate, and that E. faecalis SSAT is almost as efficient as human SSAT with spermine as substrate. The polyamine auxotrophy, polyamine-independent growth and biofilm formation, and presence of functional polyamine N-acetyltransferases in S. aureus and E. faecalis represent a new paradigm for bacterial polyamine biology.

AB - Polyamines such as spermidine and spermine are primordial polycations that are ubiquitously present in the three domains of life. We have found that Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis have lost either all or most polyamine biosynthetic genes, respectively, and are devoid of any polyamine when grown in polyamine-free media. In contrast to bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Campylobacter jejuni and Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which absolutely require polyamines for growth, S. aureus and E. faecalis grow normally over multiple subcultures in the absence of polyamines. Furthermore, S. aureus and E. faecalis form biofilms normally without polyamines, and exogenous polyamines do not stimulate growth or biofilm formation. High levels of external polyamines, including norspermidine, eventually inhibit biofilm formation through inhibition of planktonic growth. We show that spermidine/spermine N-acetyltransferase (SSAT) homologues encoded by S. aureus USA300 and E. faecalis acetylate spermidine, spermine and norspermidine, that spermine is the more preferred substrate, and that E. faecalis SSAT is almost as efficient as human SSAT with spermine as substrate. The polyamine auxotrophy, polyamine-independent growth and biofilm formation, and presence of functional polyamine N-acetyltransferases in S. aureus and E. faecalis represent a new paradigm for bacterial polyamine biology.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85056124064&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85056124064&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/mmi.14145

DO - 10.1111/mmi.14145

M3 - Article

C2 - 30281855

AN - SCOPUS:85056124064

JO - Molecular Microbiology

JF - Molecular Microbiology

SN - 0950-382X

ER -