Case-control studies suggest that African Americans with genetic variants in both copies of APOL1 have increased risk for hypertension-attributable ESRD and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Here, we tested these risk variants in the Dallas Heart Study to ascertain the prevalence of APOL1-associated renal disease in a large population-based study and to estimate the contribution of APOL1 risk variants to disparities in renal disease. We determined the genotype of 1825 African Americans and 1042 European Americans. Among participants without diabetes, we identified microalbuminuria in 2.3% of European Americans, 6.0% of African Americans with no or one APOL1 risk allele, and 16.5% of African Americans with two risk alleles. In addition, the proportions of participants with estimated GFR < 60 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 was 1.5% for nondiabetic European Americans, 1.7% for African Americans with no or one APOL1 risk allele, and 6.7% for African Americans with two risk alleles. The APOL1 genotype did not associate with any differences in rates of CKD for study participants with diabetes. Our data suggest that more than 3 million African Americans likely have the high-risk genotype and are at markedly increased risk for nondiabetic CKD. In contrast, African Americans without the risk genotype and European Americans appear to have similar risk for developing nondiabetic CKD.
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