Background The necessity and frequency of postoperative surveillance for appendiceal carcinoid tumors ≤1 cm are undetermined. Methods A retrospective review was conducted of all patients with appendiceal carcinoid tumors ≤1 cm managed at an academic, tertiary referral center. Clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment, surveillance, recurrence, and survival were assessed and analyzed. Results Over a 16-year period, 31 patients met the inclusion criteria. Appendicitis (n = 17) and pelvic mass (n = 5) were the most common presentations. Median tumor diameter was 5 mm (range, 1-10 mm). Two patients had mesoappendiceal involvement. No patients had regional lymph node involvement or distant metastasis. Postoperatively, 14 patients (45%) received follow-up recommendations, including ≥1 of the following: imaging (n = 9), medical oncology referral (n = 7), colonoscopy (n = 5), and laboratory studies (n = 5). There were no recurrences or disease-specific deaths during a median follow-up period of 5 years (range, 0-15 years). Conclusions Appendiceal carcinoids ≤1 cm are unlikely to recur. Therefore, postoperative surveillance may be unnecessary.
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