Potential age-dependent effects of estrogen on neural injury

Rachel L. Leon, Jason D. Huber, Charles L. Rosen

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In 2000, approximately 10 million women were receiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for alleviation of menopausal symptoms. A number of prior animal studies suggested that HRT may be neuroprotective and cardioprotective. Then, in 2003, reports from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) indicated that longterm estrogen/progestin supplementation led to increased incidence of stroke. A second branch of the WHI in women with prior hysterectomy found an even stronger correlation between estrogen supplementation alone and stroke incidence. Follow-up analyses of the data, as well as data from other smaller clinical trials, have also demonstrated increased stroke severity in women receiving HRT or estrogen alone. This review examines the studies indicating that estrogen is neuroprotectant in animal models and explores potential reasons why this may not be true in postmenopausal women. Specifically, age-related differences in estrogen receptors and estrogenic actions in the brain are discussed, with the conclusion that animal models of disease must closely mimic human disease to produce clinically relevant results.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2450-2460
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Journal of Pathology
Volume178
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2011
Externally publishedYes

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Hormone Replacement Therapy
Estrogens
Stroke
Wounds and Injuries
Women's Health
Animal Disease Models
Incidence
Neuroprotective Agents
Progestins
Hysterectomy
Estrogen Receptors
Animal Models
Clinical Trials
Brain

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine

Cite this

Potential age-dependent effects of estrogen on neural injury. / Leon, Rachel L.; Huber, Jason D.; Rosen, Charles L.

In: American Journal of Pathology, Vol. 178, No. 6, 06.2011, p. 2450-2460.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Leon, Rachel L. ; Huber, Jason D. ; Rosen, Charles L. / Potential age-dependent effects of estrogen on neural injury. In: American Journal of Pathology. 2011 ; Vol. 178, No. 6. pp. 2450-2460.
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