PPARγ and TGFβ—Major regulators of metabolism, inflammation, and fibrosis in the lungs and kidneys

Gábor Kökény, Laurent Calvier, Georg Hansmann

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a type II nuclear receptor, initially recognized in adipose tissue for its role in fatty acid storage and glucose metabolism. It promotes lipid uptake and adipogenesis by increasing insulin sensitivity and adiponectin release. Later, PPARγ was implicated in cardiac development and in critical conditions such as pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and kidney failure. Recently, a cluster of different papers linked PPARγ signaling with another superfamily, the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ), and its receptors, all of which play a major role in PAH and kidney failure. TGFβ is a multifunctional cytokine that drives inflammation, fibrosis, and cell differentiation while PPARγ activation reverses these adverse events in many models. Such opposite biological effects emphasize the delicate balance and complex crosstalk between PPARγ and TGFβ. Based on solid experimental and clinical evidence, the present review summarizes connections and their implications for PAH and kidney failure, highlighting the similarities and differences between lung and kidney mechanisms as well as discussing the therapeutic potential of PPARγ agonist pioglitazone.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number10431
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Volume22
Issue number19
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2021

Keywords

  • Inflammation
  • Kidney fibrosis
  • PPARγ
  • Prolifer-ation
  • Pulmonary arterial hypertension
  • TGFβ
  • Vascular injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry

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