We have developed new design algorithms for compensating boli to facilitate the implementation of four-dimensional charged-particle lung therapy in clinical applications. Four-dimensional CT (4DCT) data for eight lung cancer patients were acquired with a 16-slice CT under free breathing. Six compensating boli were developed that may be categorized into three classes: (1) boli-based on contoured gross tumor volumes (GTV) from a 4DCT data set during each respiratory phase, subsequently combined into one (GTV-4DCT bolus); (2) boli-based on contoured internal target volume (ITV) from image-processed 3DCT data only [temporal-maximum-intensity-projection (TMIP)/temporal-average- intensity-projection (TAIP)] with calculated boli (ITV-TMIP and ITV-TAIP boli); and (3) boli-based on contoured ITV utilizing image-processed 3DCT data, applied to 4DCT for design of boli for each phase, which were then combined. The carbon beam dose distribution within each bolus was calculated as a function of time and compared to plans in which respiratory-ungated/gated strategies were used. The GTV-4DCT treatment plan required a prohibitively long time for contouring the GTV manually for each respiratory phase, but it delivered more than 95% of the prescribed dose to the target volume. The TMIP and TAIP treatments, although more time-efficient, resulted in an unacceptable excess dose to normal tissues and underdosing of the target volume. The dose distribution for the ITV-4DCT bolus was similar to that for the GTV-4DCT bolus and required significantly less practitioner time. The ITV-4DCT bolus treatment plan is time-efficient and provides a high-quality dose distribution, making it a practical alternative to the GTV-4DCT bolus treatment plan.
- Charged particle
- Computed tomography
- Lung cancer
- Target volume
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging