Highly reliable identification of adults with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) at risk for sudden death (SD) has been reported. A significant controversy remains, however, regarding the most reliable risk stratification methodology for children and adolescents with HC. The present study assesses the accuracy of SD prediction and prevention with prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) in young HC patients. The study group is comprised of 146 HC patients <20 years of age evaluated consecutively over 17 years with prospective risk stratification and ICD decision-making. We relied on ≥1 established individual risk markers considered major within each patient's clinical profile, based on an enhanced American College of Cardiology /American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines algorithm. Of the 60 largely asymptomatic patients implanted with primary prevention ICDs at age 15 ± 4 years, 9 (15%) experienced device therapy terminating potentially lethal ventricular tachyarrhythmias and restoring sinus rhythm at 19 ± 6 years (range 9 to 29), 5.1 ± 6.0 years after implant; 3 patients had multiple appropriate ICD discharges. The individual risk marker algorithm was associated with 100% sensitivity in predicting SD events (95%CI: 69, 100) and 63% specificity for identifying patients without events (95%CI: 54, 71). Of these patients with device therapy, massive left ventricular hypertrophy (absolute wall thickness ≥30 mm) was the most common predictor, present in 70% of patients either alone or in combination with other risk markers. Each of the 146 study patients have survived to date at 22 ± 5 years, including all 86 without ICD recommendations. In conclusion, an enhanced ACC/AHA risk stratification strategy, based on established individual risk markers, was highly reliable in prospectively predicting SD events in children and adolescents with HC, and preventing arrhythmia-based catastrophes in this susceptible high risk population.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine