The development of high-dimensional imaging systems in image-guided radiotherapy provides important pathways to the ultimate goal of real-time full volumetric motion monitoring. Effective motion management during radiation treatment usually requires prediction to account for system latency and extra signal/image processing time. It is challenging to predict high-dimensional respiratory motion due to the complexity of the motion pattern combined with the curse of dimensionality. Linear dimension reduction methods such as PCA have been used to construct a linear subspace from the high-dimensional data, followed by efficient predictions on the lower-dimensional subspace. In this study, we extend such rationale to a more general manifold and propose a framework for high-dimensional motion prediction with manifold learning, which allows one to learn more descriptive features compared to linear methods with comparable dimensions. Specifically, a kernel PCA is used to construct a proper low-dimensional feature manifold, where accurate and efficient prediction can be performed. A fixed-point iterative pre-image estimation method is used to recover the predicted value in the original state space. We evaluated and compared the proposed method with a PCA-based approach on level-set surfaces reconstructed from point clouds captured by a 3D photogrammetry system. The prediction accuracy was evaluated in terms of root-mean-squared-error. Our proposed method achieved consistent higher prediction accuracy (sub-millimeter) for both 200 ms and 600 ms lookahead lengths compared to the PCA-based approach, and the performance gain was statistically significant.
- manifold learning
- respiratory motion
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging