Predictive factors of diagnostic delay and effect on treatment patterns in testicular germ cell tumor patients

Rohit R. Badia, Nathan Chertack, Xiaosong Meng, Jeffrey Howard, Nirmish Singla, Vitaly Margulis, Yair Lotan, Solomon Woldu, Aditya Bagrodia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Increased time from clinical symptom onset to diagnosis of testicular germ cell tumor (GCT), termed diagnostic delay (DD), is associated with an increased likelihood of metastatic disease at presentation. We assessed the association of patient factors on DD and subsequent treatment patterns. Methods: The records for patients undergoing orchiectomy at a tertiary care hospital and safety net county hospital between 2006 and 2018 were obtained. Demographic variables, clinical symptoms, and post-diagnosis parameters were queried. Patient factors were assessed for association with DD by using both univariate and multivariable analyses. The effect of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) on DD was also studied. Results: 201 patients received orchiectomy, and median DD was 38 days (IQR 14.5–122.5). Patients with metastatic disease had increased DD compared to those with localized disease (76 vs. 31 days, P < 0.001). Increased DD was associated with presentation to the safety net hospital (P = 0.001), non-white (P = 0.025), emergency department presentation (P = 0.025), uninsured (P = 0.01), testicular pain (P = 0.019), and presentation before 2014 (P = 0.047). DD was independently associated with presentation before 2014 (P = 0.004) on multivariate analysis. DD >38 days (i.e., above the median) was associated with increased receipt of adjuvant therapy (P = 0.001). Conclusion: PPACA implementation is associated with earlier detection of testicular cancer. Our findings highlight the impact of health care legislation on improving access of care to young men with cancer. Delay in diagnosis can lead to increased stage at presentation and need for adjuvant treatment. Further research to identify and overcome sociodemographic factors associated with diagnostic delay may lead to decreased treatment-related morbidity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalUrologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2022

Keywords

  • Adjuvant treatment
  • Affordable care act
  • Delay in care
  • Diagnostic delay
  • Public health
  • Testis cancer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Urology

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