Background For patients with autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia (ADH), it remains unclear whether differences exist in the risk of premature coronary heart disease (CHD) between patients with confirmed mutations in low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) vs those without detectable mutations. Objective This study sought to assess the risk of premature CHD in ADH patients with mutations in LDLR (referred to as familial hypercholesterolemia [FH]) vs those without detectable mutations (unexplained ADH), stratified by sex. Methods Comparative study of premature CHD in a multiethnic cohort of 111 men and 165 women meeting adult Simon-Broome criteria for ADH. Results Women with FH (n = 51) had an increased risk of premature CHD compared with unexplained ADH women (n = 111; hazard ratio [HR], 2.74; 95% confidence interval, 1.40-5.34; P =.003) even after adjustment for lipid levels and traditional CHD risk factors (HR, 2.53 [1.10-5.83]; P =.005). Men with FH (n = 42), in contrast, had a similar risk of premature CHD when compared with unexplained ADH men (n = 66; unadjusted: HR, 1.48 [0.84-2.63]; P =.18; adjusted: HR, 1.04 [0.46-2.37]; P =.72). To address whether mutation status provides additional information beyond LDL-cholesterol level, we analyzed premature CHD risk for FH vs unexplained ADH at various percentiles of LDL-cholesterol: the risk ratios were significant for women at 25th percentile (HR, 4.90 [1.69-14.19]) and 50th percentile (HR, 3.44 [1.42-8.32]) but not at 75th percentile (HR, 1.99 [0.95-4.17]), and were not significant for men at any percentile. Conclusions Our findings suggest that genetic confirmation of ADH may be important to identify patient's risk of CHD, especially for female LDLR mutation carriers.
- Familial hypercholesterolemia
- Premature coronary heart disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Nutrition and Dietetics
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine