Prenatal diethylstilbestrol induces malformation of the external genitalia of male and female mice and persistent second-generation developmental abnormalities of the external genitalia in two mouse strains

Phitsanu Mahawong, Adriane Sinclair, Yi Li, Bruce Schlomer, Esequiel Rodriguez, Max M. Ferretti, Baomei Liu, Laurence S. Baskin, Gerald R. Cunha

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Abstract

Potential trans-generational influence of diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure emerged with reports of effects in grandchildren of DES-treated pregnant women and of reproductive tract tumors in offspring of mice exposed in utero to DES. Accordingly, we examined the trans-generational influence of DES on development of external genitalia (ExG) and compared effects of in utero DES exposure in CD-1 and C57BL/6 mice injected with oil or DES every other day from gestational days 12 to 18. Mice were examined at birth, and on 5-120 days postnatal to evaluate ExG malformations. Of 23 adult (>60 days) prenatally DES-exposed males, features indicative of urethral meatal hypospadias (see text for definitions) ranged from 18% to 100% in prenatally DES-exposed CD-1 males and 31% to 100% in prenatally DES-exposed C57BL/6 males. Thus, the strains differed only slightly in the incidence of male urethral hypospadias. Ninety-one percent of DES-exposed CD-1 females and 100% of DES-exposed C57BL/6 females had urethral-vaginal fistula. All DES-exposed CD-1 and C57BL/6 females lacked an os clitoris. None of the prenatally oil-treated CD-1 and C57BL/6 male and female mice had ExG malformations. For the second-generation study, 10 adult CD-1 males and females, from oil- and DES-exposed groups, respectively, were paired with untreated CD-1 mice for 30 days, and their offspring evaluated for ExG malformations. None of the F1 DES-treated females were fertile. Nine of 10 prenatally DES-exposed CD-1 males sired offspring with untreated females, producing 55 male and 42 female pups. Of the F2 DES-lineage adult males, 20% had exposed urethral flaps, a criterion of urethral meatal hypospadias. Five of 42 (11.9%) F2 DES lineage females had urethral-vaginal fistula. In contrast, all F2 oil-lineage males and all oil-lineage females were normal. Thus, prenatal DES exposure induces malformations of ExG in both sexes and strains of mice, and certain malformations are transmitted to the second-generation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)51-69
Number of pages19
JournalDifferentiation
Volume88
Issue number2-3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2014

Fingerprint

Male Genitalia
Female Genitalia
Diethylstilbestrol
Genitalia
Oils
Hypospadias
Vaginal Fistula
Clitoris

Keywords

  • Diethylstilbestrol
  • External genitalia
  • Hypospadias
  • Mice
  • Prenatal
  • Trans-generational effect

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental Biology
  • Cell Biology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

Prenatal diethylstilbestrol induces malformation of the external genitalia of male and female mice and persistent second-generation developmental abnormalities of the external genitalia in two mouse strains. / Mahawong, Phitsanu; Sinclair, Adriane; Li, Yi; Schlomer, Bruce; Rodriguez, Esequiel; Ferretti, Max M.; Liu, Baomei; Baskin, Laurence S.; Cunha, Gerald R.

In: Differentiation, Vol. 88, No. 2-3, 01.09.2014, p. 51-69.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mahawong, Phitsanu ; Sinclair, Adriane ; Li, Yi ; Schlomer, Bruce ; Rodriguez, Esequiel ; Ferretti, Max M. ; Liu, Baomei ; Baskin, Laurence S. ; Cunha, Gerald R. / Prenatal diethylstilbestrol induces malformation of the external genitalia of male and female mice and persistent second-generation developmental abnormalities of the external genitalia in two mouse strains. In: Differentiation. 2014 ; Vol. 88, No. 2-3. pp. 51-69.
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abstract = "Potential trans-generational influence of diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure emerged with reports of effects in grandchildren of DES-treated pregnant women and of reproductive tract tumors in offspring of mice exposed in utero to DES. Accordingly, we examined the trans-generational influence of DES on development of external genitalia (ExG) and compared effects of in utero DES exposure in CD-1 and C57BL/6 mice injected with oil or DES every other day from gestational days 12 to 18. Mice were examined at birth, and on 5-120 days postnatal to evaluate ExG malformations. Of 23 adult (>60 days) prenatally DES-exposed males, features indicative of urethral meatal hypospadias (see text for definitions) ranged from 18{\%} to 100{\%} in prenatally DES-exposed CD-1 males and 31{\%} to 100{\%} in prenatally DES-exposed C57BL/6 males. Thus, the strains differed only slightly in the incidence of male urethral hypospadias. Ninety-one percent of DES-exposed CD-1 females and 100{\%} of DES-exposed C57BL/6 females had urethral-vaginal fistula. All DES-exposed CD-1 and C57BL/6 females lacked an os clitoris. None of the prenatally oil-treated CD-1 and C57BL/6 male and female mice had ExG malformations. For the second-generation study, 10 adult CD-1 males and females, from oil- and DES-exposed groups, respectively, were paired with untreated CD-1 mice for 30 days, and their offspring evaluated for ExG malformations. None of the F1 DES-treated females were fertile. Nine of 10 prenatally DES-exposed CD-1 males sired offspring with untreated females, producing 55 male and 42 female pups. Of the F2 DES-lineage adult males, 20{\%} had exposed urethral flaps, a criterion of urethral meatal hypospadias. Five of 42 (11.9{\%}) F2 DES lineage females had urethral-vaginal fistula. In contrast, all F2 oil-lineage males and all oil-lineage females were normal. Thus, prenatal DES exposure induces malformations of ExG in both sexes and strains of mice, and certain malformations are transmitted to the second-generation.",
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AU - Li, Yi

AU - Schlomer, Bruce

AU - Rodriguez, Esequiel

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AU - Cunha, Gerald R.

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N2 - Potential trans-generational influence of diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure emerged with reports of effects in grandchildren of DES-treated pregnant women and of reproductive tract tumors in offspring of mice exposed in utero to DES. Accordingly, we examined the trans-generational influence of DES on development of external genitalia (ExG) and compared effects of in utero DES exposure in CD-1 and C57BL/6 mice injected with oil or DES every other day from gestational days 12 to 18. Mice were examined at birth, and on 5-120 days postnatal to evaluate ExG malformations. Of 23 adult (>60 days) prenatally DES-exposed males, features indicative of urethral meatal hypospadias (see text for definitions) ranged from 18% to 100% in prenatally DES-exposed CD-1 males and 31% to 100% in prenatally DES-exposed C57BL/6 males. Thus, the strains differed only slightly in the incidence of male urethral hypospadias. Ninety-one percent of DES-exposed CD-1 females and 100% of DES-exposed C57BL/6 females had urethral-vaginal fistula. All DES-exposed CD-1 and C57BL/6 females lacked an os clitoris. None of the prenatally oil-treated CD-1 and C57BL/6 male and female mice had ExG malformations. For the second-generation study, 10 adult CD-1 males and females, from oil- and DES-exposed groups, respectively, were paired with untreated CD-1 mice for 30 days, and their offspring evaluated for ExG malformations. None of the F1 DES-treated females were fertile. Nine of 10 prenatally DES-exposed CD-1 males sired offspring with untreated females, producing 55 male and 42 female pups. Of the F2 DES-lineage adult males, 20% had exposed urethral flaps, a criterion of urethral meatal hypospadias. Five of 42 (11.9%) F2 DES lineage females had urethral-vaginal fistula. In contrast, all F2 oil-lineage males and all oil-lineage females were normal. Thus, prenatal DES exposure induces malformations of ExG in both sexes and strains of mice, and certain malformations are transmitted to the second-generation.

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