Prevalence of Cocaine Use in Brazil: Data from the II Brazilian National Alcohol and Drugs Survey (BNADS)

Renata Rigacci Abdalla, Clarice S. Madruga, Marcelo Ribeiro, Ilana Pinsky, Raul Caetano, Ronaldo Laranjeira

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

99 Scopus citations


Objective: To determine the current prevalence rates of cocaine use and dependence in a representative sample of the Brazilian population, and to investigate possible associations with sociodemographic factors. Method: The Second Brazilian Alcohol and Drugs Survey (II BNADS) interviewed 4607 individuals aged 14. years and older from the Brazilian household population including an oversample of 1157 adolescents (14 to 18. years old). The survey gathered information on alcohol, tobacco and illegal substances use as well as on risk factors for abuse and dependence. The Severity of Dependence Scale was used to evaluate cocaine dependence rates among users. Results: Last year consumption of crack-cocaine was 2.2% in the overall population excluding the elderly group. Lifetime and last year prevalence rate of snorted cocaine was 3.9% and 1.7%, respectively. Smoked cocaine use in Brazil was estimated in 1.5% for lifetime and 0.8% for last year use. Cocaine addiction was identified in 41.4% between users in the prior year. Conclusions: The prevalence rates of snorted and smoked cocaine in Brazil suggests that the country is amongst the nations with greatest annual consumption rates becoming one of the biggest consumer markets of cocaine worldwide. Prevention and treatment policies should take this into consideration and strengthen the focus on cocaine use in the country.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)297-301
Number of pages5
JournalAddictive Behaviors
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2014


  • Addiction
  • Cocaine
  • Crack
  • Epidemiology
  • Household survey

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Toxicology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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