Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is an AIDS defining lesion and risk of NHL most likely correlates with the degree of immunosuppression from HIV. Risk of NHL is highest among patients with CD4 count <50 cells/mL. Primary pulmonary lymphoma (PPL) is an infrequent cause of AIDS-related lymphoma. The authors report a patient with advanced AIDS presenting with recurrent fever and pulmonary nodule seen on the CT scan. The patient remained febrile despite being on broad spectrum antibiotics with no clear source of infection. The patient underwent a bronchoscopy with biopsy of the pulmonary lesion which was most consistent with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The patient was started on dose-adjusted etoposide, vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide and prednisone (EPOCH) and was noted to be afebrile and a repeat CT scan few weeks later showed resolution of her pulmonary nodule. This case highlights the importance of considering NHL in patients with advanced AIDS presenting with pulmonary nodule and fever.
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