Primer on gadolinium chemistry

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

191 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Gadolinium is widely known by all practitioners of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) but few appreciate the basic solution chemistry of this trivalent lanthanide ion. Given the recent linkage between gadolinium contrast agents and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, some basic chemistry of this ion must be more widely understood. This short primer on gadolinium chemistry is intended to provide the reader the background principles necessary to understand the basics of chelation chemistry, water hydration numbers, and the differences between thermodynamic stability and kinetic stability or inertness. We illustrate the fundamental importance of kinetic dissociation rates in determining gadolinium toxicity in vivo by presenting new data for a novel europium DOTA-tetraamide complex that is relatively unstable thermodynamically yet extraordinarily inert kinetically and also quite nontoxic. This, plus other literature evidence, forms the basis of the fundamental axiom that it is the kinetic stability of a gadolinium complex, not its thermodynamic stability, that determines its in vivo toxicity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1240-1248
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Volume30
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2009

Fingerprint

Gadolinium
Thermodynamics
Nephrogenic Fibrosing Dermopathy
Ions
Europium
Lanthanoid Series Elements
Contrast Media
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Water

Keywords

  • Gadolinium MRI contrast agents
  • Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis
  • Thermodynamic and kinetic principles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Cite this

Primer on gadolinium chemistry. / Sherry, A. Dean; Caravan, Peter; Lenkinski, Robert E.

In: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Vol. 30, No. 6, 12.2009, p. 1240-1248.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{ebef171cfc894b5783e18238fe3972ec,
title = "Primer on gadolinium chemistry",
abstract = "Gadolinium is widely known by all practitioners of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) but few appreciate the basic solution chemistry of this trivalent lanthanide ion. Given the recent linkage between gadolinium contrast agents and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, some basic chemistry of this ion must be more widely understood. This short primer on gadolinium chemistry is intended to provide the reader the background principles necessary to understand the basics of chelation chemistry, water hydration numbers, and the differences between thermodynamic stability and kinetic stability or inertness. We illustrate the fundamental importance of kinetic dissociation rates in determining gadolinium toxicity in vivo by presenting new data for a novel europium DOTA-tetraamide complex that is relatively unstable thermodynamically yet extraordinarily inert kinetically and also quite nontoxic. This, plus other literature evidence, forms the basis of the fundamental axiom that it is the kinetic stability of a gadolinium complex, not its thermodynamic stability, that determines its in vivo toxicity.",
keywords = "Gadolinium MRI contrast agents, Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, Thermodynamic and kinetic principles",
author = "Sherry, {A. Dean} and Peter Caravan and Lenkinski, {Robert E.}",
year = "2009",
month = "12",
doi = "10.1002/jmri.21966",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "30",
pages = "1240--1248",
journal = "Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging",
issn = "1053-1807",
publisher = "John Wiley and Sons Inc.",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Primer on gadolinium chemistry

AU - Sherry, A. Dean

AU - Caravan, Peter

AU - Lenkinski, Robert E.

PY - 2009/12

Y1 - 2009/12

N2 - Gadolinium is widely known by all practitioners of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) but few appreciate the basic solution chemistry of this trivalent lanthanide ion. Given the recent linkage between gadolinium contrast agents and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, some basic chemistry of this ion must be more widely understood. This short primer on gadolinium chemistry is intended to provide the reader the background principles necessary to understand the basics of chelation chemistry, water hydration numbers, and the differences between thermodynamic stability and kinetic stability or inertness. We illustrate the fundamental importance of kinetic dissociation rates in determining gadolinium toxicity in vivo by presenting new data for a novel europium DOTA-tetraamide complex that is relatively unstable thermodynamically yet extraordinarily inert kinetically and also quite nontoxic. This, plus other literature evidence, forms the basis of the fundamental axiom that it is the kinetic stability of a gadolinium complex, not its thermodynamic stability, that determines its in vivo toxicity.

AB - Gadolinium is widely known by all practitioners of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) but few appreciate the basic solution chemistry of this trivalent lanthanide ion. Given the recent linkage between gadolinium contrast agents and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, some basic chemistry of this ion must be more widely understood. This short primer on gadolinium chemistry is intended to provide the reader the background principles necessary to understand the basics of chelation chemistry, water hydration numbers, and the differences between thermodynamic stability and kinetic stability or inertness. We illustrate the fundamental importance of kinetic dissociation rates in determining gadolinium toxicity in vivo by presenting new data for a novel europium DOTA-tetraamide complex that is relatively unstable thermodynamically yet extraordinarily inert kinetically and also quite nontoxic. This, plus other literature evidence, forms the basis of the fundamental axiom that it is the kinetic stability of a gadolinium complex, not its thermodynamic stability, that determines its in vivo toxicity.

KW - Gadolinium MRI contrast agents

KW - Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis

KW - Thermodynamic and kinetic principles

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=73649134369&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=73649134369&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/jmri.21966

DO - 10.1002/jmri.21966

M3 - Article

VL - 30

SP - 1240

EP - 1248

JO - Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging

JF - Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging

SN - 1053-1807

IS - 6

ER -