Prospective PI-RADS v2.1 atypical benign prostatic hyperplasia nodules with marked restricted diffusion: Detection of clinically significant prostate cancer on multiparametric MRI

Daniel N. Costa, Liwei Jia, Naveen Subramanian, Yin Xi, Neil M. Rofsky, Debora Z. Recchimuzzi, Alberto Diaz de Leon, Patrick Arraj, Ivan Pedrosa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

BACKGROUND. On the basis of expert consensus, PI-RADS version 2.1 (v2.1) introduced the transition zone (TZ) atypical benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) nodule, defined as a TZ lesion with an incomplete or absent capsule (T2 score, 2). PI-RADS v2.1 also included a revised scoring pathway whereby such nodules, if exhibiting marked restricted diffusion (DWI score, 4–5), are upgraded from overall PI-RADS category 2 to category 3 (2 + 1 TZ lesions). OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to compare the rates of detection of clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) in prospectively reported 2 + 1 TZ lesions, as defined by PI-RADS v2.1, and conventional 3 + 0 TZ lesions with targeted biopsy as the reference standard. METHODS. This retrospective study included men with no known PCa or with treatment-naïve grade group (GG) 1 PCa who underwent 3-T multiparametric MRI of the prostate with prospective reporting by means of PI-RADS v2.1. Patients with at least one PI-RADS category 3 TZ lesion who underwent targeted biopsy formed the final sample. Biopsy results were summarized descriptively for 2 + 1 and 3 + 0 lesions. Generalized estimating equations were used to compare csPCa detection rates between groups. Associations between csPCa in 2 + 1 lesions and patient age, PSA level, prostate volume, PSA density, biopsy history, lesion size, and lesion ADC were tested with Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher exact tests. RESULTS. Among 1238 eligible patients who underwent MRI reported with PI-RADS v2.1, 2 + 1 lesions were reported in 6% (n = 69) and 3 + 0 TZ lesions in 7% (n = 87) of patients. No PCa, GG1 PCa, or csPCa was found in 84% (n = 41), 10% (n = 5), and 6% (n = 3) of 49 patients with 2 + 1 lesions who underwent targeted biopsy. Nor were they found in 74% (n = 45), 15% (n = 9), and 11% (n = 7) of 61 patients with 3 + 0 lesions who underwent targeted biopsy. The csPCa detection rate was not significantly different between 2 + 1 and 3 + 0 lesions (p = .31). All cases of csPCa were GG2, except for one 3 + 0 lesion with a GG3 tumor. No clinical or imaging variable was associated with csPCa in 2 + 1 lesions. CONCLUSION. The rate of csPCa in atypical BPH nodules with marked restricted diffusion was low (6%) and not significantly different from that of conventional 3 + 0 TZ lesions (11%). CLINICAL IMPACT. The results provide prospective clinical data about the revised TZ scoring criterion and pathway in PI-RADS v2.1 for atypical BPH nodules with marked restricted diffusion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)395-403
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Roentgenology
Volume217
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2021

Keywords

  • Biopsy
  • Diagnosis
  • Multiparametric MRI
  • PI-RADS
  • Prostate cancer
  • Structured reporting

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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