Background: Generation of the amyloid (A) peptide of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is differentially regulated through the intracellular trafficking of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) within the secretory and endocytic pathways. Protein kinase C (PKC) and rho-activated coiled-coil kinases (ROCKs) are two "third messenger" signaling molecules that control the relative utilization of these two pathways. Several members of the Vps family of receptors (Vps35, SorL1, SorCS1) play important roles in post-trans-Golgi network (TGN) sorting and generation of APP derivatives, including A at the TGN, endosome and the plasma membrane. We now report that Vps10-domain proteins are candidate substrates for PKC and/or ROCK2 and act as phospho-state-sensitive physiological effectors for post-TGN sorting of APP and its derivatives. Results: Analysis of the SorL1 cytoplasmic tail revealed multiple consensus sites for phosphorylation by protein kinases. SorL1 was subsequently identified as a phosphoprotein, based on sensitivity of its electrophoretic migration pattern to calf intestine alkaline phosphatase and on its reaction with anti-phospho-serine antibodies. Activation of PKC resulted in increased shedding of the ectodomains of both APP and SorL1, and this was paralleled by an apparent increase in the level of the phosphorylated form of SorL1. ROCK2, the neuronal isoform of another protein kinase, was found to form complexes with SorL1, and both ROCK2 inhibition and ROCK2 knockdown enhanced generation of both soluble APP and A. Conclusion: These results highlight the potential importance of SorL1 in elucidating phospho-state sensitive mechanisms in the regulation of metabolism of APP and A by PKC and ROCK2.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Clinical Neurology
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience