PTH and Vitamin D are two major regulators of mineral metabolism. They play critical roles in the maintenance of calcium and phosphate homeostasis as well as the development and maintenance of bone health. PTH and Vitamin D form a tightly controlled feedback cycle, PTH being a major stimulator of vitamin D synthesis in the kidney while vitamin D exerts negative feedback on PTH secretion. The major function of PTH and major physiologic regulator is circulating ionized calcium. The effects of PTH on gut, kidney, and bone serve to maintain serum calcium within a tight range. PTH has a reciprocal effect on phosphate metabolism. In contrast, vitamin D has a stimulatory effect on both calcium and phosphate homeostasis, playing a key role in providing adequate mineral for normal bone formation. Both hormones act in concert with the more recently discovered FGF23 and klotho, hormones involved predominantly in phosphate metabolism, which also participate in this closely knit feedback circuit. Of great interest are recent studies demonstrating effects of both PTH and vitamin D on the cardiovascular system. Hyperparathyroidism and vitamin D deficiency have been implicated in a variety of cardiovascular disorders including hypertension, atherosclerosis, vascular calcification, and kidney failure. Both hormones have direct effects on the endothelium, heart, and other vascular structures. How these effects of PTH and vitamin D interface with the regulation of bone formation are the subject of intense investigation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physiology (medical)