Pyruvate kinase M2 regulates glucose metabolism by functioning as a coactivator for hypoxia-inducible factor 1 in cancer cells

Weibo Luo, Gregg L. Semenza

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

117 Scopus citations


Cancer cells feature altered glucose metabolism that allows their rapid growth. They consume large amounts of glucose to produce lactate, even in the presence of ample oxygen, which is known as the Warburg effect. Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) contributes to the Warburg effect by previously unknown mechanisms. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) mediates PKM2 gene transcription and metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells. The recent discovery of novel physical and functional interactions between PKM2 and HIF-1 in cancer cells has provided insight into molecular mechanisms underlying the Warburg effect.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)551-556
Number of pages6
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2011



  • Glycolysis
  • HIF-1
  • Hypoxia
  • Metabolism
  • Warburg effect

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology

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