Several groups, including ours, have initiated efforts to develop small-animal irradiators that mimic radiation therapy (RT) for human treatment. The major image modality used to guide irradiation is cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). While CBCT provides excellent guidance capability, it is less adept at localizing soft tissue targets growing in a low image contrast environment. In contrast, bioluminescence imaging (BLI) provides strong image contrast and thus is an attractive solution for soft tissue targeting. However, commonly used 2D BLI on an animal surface is inadequate to guide irradiation, because optical transport from an internal bioluminescent tumor is highly susceptible to the effects of optical path length and tissue absorption and scattering. Recognition of these limitations led us to integrate 3D bioluminescence tomography (BLT) with the small animal radiation research platform (SARRP). In this chapter, we introduce quantitative BLT (QBLT) with the advanced capabilities of quantifying tumor volume for irradiation guidance. The detail of system components, calibration protocol, and step-by-step procedure to conduct the QBLT-guided irradiation are described.