Purpose: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the utility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), chemical shift signal intensity index (SII), and contrast enhancement in distinguishing between benign lesions and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and between subtypes of renal lesions. Methods: This retrospective study included 98 renal lesions (£ 3 cm) on MRI with correlative surgical pathology. Scanner field strength, lesion location, and size were recorded. Two readers blinded to surgical pathology independently measured ADC ratio (ADC lesion/ADC non-lesion kidney), SII, and absolute/relative enhancement in the corticomedullary and nephrographic phases of contrast. Results: There were 76 malignant and 22 benign lesions. 42 RCC were clear cell (ccRCC), 19 papillary (pRCC), 5 chromophobe (cbRCC). Benign lesions included both solid and cystic lesions. Interreader agreement for all variables was good-excellent (ICC 0.70-0.91). There was no difference in ADC or SII between benign and malignant lesions. There was greater absolute corticomedullary enhancement of benign versus malignant lesions (150.0 ± 111.5 vs. 81.1 ± 74.8, p = 0.0115), which did not persist when excluding pRCC. For lesion subtype differentiation,ADCratio for pRCCwas lower than benign lesions (0.74 ± 0.35 vs. 1.03 ± 0.46, p = 0.0246). ccRCC demonstrated greater SII than otherRCC(0.09 ± 0.22 vs. 0.001 ± 0.26, p = 0.0412). Oncocytomas and angiomyolipoma (AML) showed greater absolute corticomedullary enhancement than ccRCC and pRCC (145.6 ± 65.2 vs. 107.2 ± 85.3, p = 0.043 and 186.2 ± 93.9 vs. 37.6 ± 35.3, p = 0.0108), respectively. Conclusions: While corticomedullary-phase enhancement was a differentiating feature, quantitative metrics from diffusion and chemical shift imaging cannot reliably differentiate benign from malignant lesions. Quantitative assessment may be useful in differentiating some benign and malignant lesion subtypes.
- Chemical shift
- Diffusion-weighted imaging
- Magnetic resonance
- Renal mass
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging