Locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) is a heterogeneous disease, encompassing stage IIIA, for which surgery in combination with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy (RT) represents a potential treatment approach for select patients, and stage IIIB, for which chemoradiation represents the standard of care. Recent advances in systemic cytotoxic and molecularly targeted therapies coupled with technologic innovations in radiotherapy have the potential to improve outcomes for this patient population. Many ongoing clinical trials use specific genetic mutations or histologic status to determine the combination of targeted therapies and RT, as well as to determine the optimal chemoradiotherapy platforms. Additionally, use of modern RT techniques has improved outcomes for some patients with limited metastatic disease, thereby prompting further studies on how to best integrate aggressive management of oligometastases using RT with chemotherapeutic regimens.
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