Radio-frequency thermal ablation with NaCl solution injection: Effect of electrical conductivity on tissue heating and coagulation - Phantom and porcine liver study

S. N. Goldberg, M. Ahmed, G. S. Gazelle, J. B. Kruskal, J. C. Huertas, E. F. Halpern, B. S. Oliver, R. E. Lenkinski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

226 Scopus citations

Abstract

PURPOSE: To characterize the effects of NaCl concentration on tissue electrical conductivity, radio-frequency (RF) deposition, and heating in phantoms and optimize adjunctive NaCl solution injection for RF ablation in an in vivo model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: RF was applied for 12-15 minutes with internally cooled electrodes. For phantom experiments (n = 51), the NaCl concentration in standardized 5% agar was varied (0%-25.0%). A nonlinear simplex optimization strategy was then used in normal porcine liver (n = 44) to determine optimal pre-RF NaCl solution injection parameters (concentration, 0%-38.5%; volume, 0-25 mL). NaCl concentration and tissue conductivity were correlated with RF energy deposition, tissue heating, and induced coagulation. RESULTS: NaCl concentration had significant but nonlinear effects on electrical conductivity, RF deposition, and heating of agar phantoms (P < .01). Progressively greater heating was observed to 5.0% NaCl, with reduced temperatures at higher concentrations. For in vivo liver, NaCl solution volume and concentration significantly influenced both tissue heating and coagulation (P < .001). Maximum heating 20 mm from the electrode (102.9°C ± 4.3 [SD]) and coagulation (7.1 cm ± 1.1) occurred with injection of 6 mL of 38.5% (saturated) NaCl solution. CONCLUSION: Injection of NaCl solution before RF ablation can increase energy deposition, tissue heating, and induced coagulation, which will likely benefit clinical RF ablation. In normal well-perfused liver, maximum coagulation (7.0 cm) occurs with injection of small volumes of saturated NaCl solution.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)157-165
Number of pages9
JournalRadiology
Volume219
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2001

Keywords

  • Liver neoplasms, therapy
  • Liver, interventional procedures
  • Radiofrequency (RF) ablation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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    Goldberg, S. N., Ahmed, M., Gazelle, G. S., Kruskal, J. B., Huertas, J. C., Halpern, E. F., Oliver, B. S., & Lenkinski, R. E. (2001). Radio-frequency thermal ablation with NaCl solution injection: Effect of electrical conductivity on tissue heating and coagulation - Phantom and porcine liver study. Radiology, 219(1), 157-165. https://doi.org/10.1148/radiology.219.1.r01ap27157