Purpose: To measure the effect of PIXY321 (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor/interleukin-3 S. cerevisiae fusion protein) on the incidence, duration, and complications of neutropenia and thrombocytopenia after moderate-dose fluorouracil 600 mg/m2, doxorubicin 60 mg/m2, and cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m2 (FAC) chemotherapy in patients with stage II and III breast cancer. Patients and Methods: In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 71 women were to receive four 21-day cycles of treatment with moderate-dose FAC chemotherapy by short intravenous infusion on day 1, followed by either placebo or PIXY321 (375 μg/m2 subcutaneously twice a day) on days 3 to 15. All patients were to receive prophylactic oral ciprofloxacin when the absolute neutrophil count was less than 1,000/μL. Results: PIXY321 significantly reduced the incidence and duration of grade 3 and grade 4 neutropenia in cycles 1 and 2 and the duration of grade 3 neutropenia in cycles 1 through 4. In cycles 3 and 4, grade 3 thrombocytopenia was significantly more common with PIXY321 (P < .05). Two patients, both in the PIXY321 group, required platelet transfusions. Fever and hospitalization for intravenous antibiotics were significantly more common in the PIXY321 group during cycle 1 only. More patients in the PIXY321 group achieved hematologic recovery by day 22 in cycles 1 through 3, and time to recovery was significantly shorter with PIXY321 in all cycles. FAC dose intensity was roughly 2% higher in the PIXY321 group (P = NS). Nonhematologic events of any intensity occurring with significantly greater overall frequency in the PIXY321 group included injection-site reactions, fever, chills, abdominal pain, and arthralgia. No patient died on study or within 30 days of her last dose of study drug. Conclusion: PIXY321 decreased the incidence and duration of FAC-induced grade 3 and 4 neutropenia in cycles 1 and 2 and significantly shortened the time to hematologic recovery in all cycles. However, it produced more systemic toxicity as well as thrombocytopenia in cycles 3 and 4.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research