To compare the toxicity and efficacy of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy and mitomycin C (MMC) chemotherapy in the prophylaxis of recurrent transitional cell carcinoma, 469 patients with completely resected stage Ta or TI transitional cell carcinoma were enrolled in a randomized Southwest Oncology Group Phase III study. All patients were judged to be at increased risk for tumor recurrence due to having had two occurrences of tumor within 56 weeks, stage T I tumor or three or more tumors within 16 weeks, or concurrent carcinoma in situ. Three hundred and seventy-seven evaluable patients received either 50 mg of Tice BCG in 50 cc saline or 20 mg MMC in 20 cc water weekly for 6 weeks and then monthly to one year. Local and systemic grade I and 2 toxicity was seen significantly more frequently following BCG treatment (P = 0.003), but no life threatening toxicity was seen with either treatment. Recurrence-free survival was significantly prolonged (P = 0.017, proportional hazard regression) in patients randomized to the BCG arm compared to the MMC arm, but there were no statistically significant differences at this analysis for worsening-free survival and overall survival, although the number of these events is too low for a definitive analysis of these long-term outcomes. Therefore, when compared to MMC chemotherapy, BCG immunotherapy is associated with a significantly higher frequency of grade 1 and 2 adverse reactions and a significantly lower first recurrence hazard rate.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations|
|State||Published - Jan 1 1995|
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