Rapid detection, discovery, and identification of post-translationally myristoylated proteins during apoptosis using a bio-orthogonal azidomyristate analog

Dale D O Martin, Gonzalo L. Vilas, Jennifer A. Prescher, Gurram Rajaiah, J R Falck, Carolyn R. Bertozzi, Luc G. Berthiaume

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

68 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Myristoylation is the attachment of the 14-carbon fatty acid myristate to the N-terminal glycine residue of proteins. Typically a co-translational modification, myristoylation of proapoptotic cysteinyl-aspartyl proteases (caspase)-cleaved Bid and PAK2 was also shown to occur post-translationally and is essential for their proper localization and proapoptotic function. Progress in the identification and characterization of myristoylated proteins has been impeded by the long exposure times required to monitor incorporation of radioactive myristate into proteins (typically 1-3 months). Consequently, we developed a nonradioactive detection methodology in which a bio-orthogonal azidomyristate analog is specifically incorporated co- or post-translationally into proteins at N-terminal glycines, chemoselectively ligated to tagged triarylphosphines and detected by Western blotting with short exposure times (seconds to minutes). This represents over a million-fold signal amplification in comparison to using radioactive labeling methods. Using rational prediction analysis to recognize putative internal myristoylation sites in caspase-cleaved proteins combined with our nonradioactive chemical detection method, we identify 5 new post-translationally myristoylatable proteins (PKCε, CD-IC2, Bap31, MST3, and the catalytic subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase). We also demonstrate that 15 proteins undergo post-translational myristoylation in apoptotic Jurkat T cells. This suggests that post-translational myristoylation of caspase-cleaved proteins represents a novel mechanism widely used to regulate cell death.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)797-806
Number of pages10
JournalFASEB Journal
Volume22
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2008

Fingerprint

apoptosis
Apoptosis
Aspartic Acid Proteases
aspartic proteinases
Proteins
proteins
Myristic Acid
glycine (amino acid)
Glycine
exposure duration
Chemical detection
glutamate-cysteine ligase
Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase
Jurkat Cells
T-cells
Cell death
protein subunits
Labeling
Amplification
cell death

Keywords

  • Cell death
  • Fatty acylation
  • Myristoylation
  • Staudinger ligation
  • Triaryphosphine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

Rapid detection, discovery, and identification of post-translationally myristoylated proteins during apoptosis using a bio-orthogonal azidomyristate analog. / Martin, Dale D O; Vilas, Gonzalo L.; Prescher, Jennifer A.; Rajaiah, Gurram; Falck, J R; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Berthiaume, Luc G.

In: FASEB Journal, Vol. 22, No. 3, 03.2008, p. 797-806.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Martin, Dale D O ; Vilas, Gonzalo L. ; Prescher, Jennifer A. ; Rajaiah, Gurram ; Falck, J R ; Bertozzi, Carolyn R. ; Berthiaume, Luc G. / Rapid detection, discovery, and identification of post-translationally myristoylated proteins during apoptosis using a bio-orthogonal azidomyristate analog. In: FASEB Journal. 2008 ; Vol. 22, No. 3. pp. 797-806.
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AB - Myristoylation is the attachment of the 14-carbon fatty acid myristate to the N-terminal glycine residue of proteins. Typically a co-translational modification, myristoylation of proapoptotic cysteinyl-aspartyl proteases (caspase)-cleaved Bid and PAK2 was also shown to occur post-translationally and is essential for their proper localization and proapoptotic function. Progress in the identification and characterization of myristoylated proteins has been impeded by the long exposure times required to monitor incorporation of radioactive myristate into proteins (typically 1-3 months). Consequently, we developed a nonradioactive detection methodology in which a bio-orthogonal azidomyristate analog is specifically incorporated co- or post-translationally into proteins at N-terminal glycines, chemoselectively ligated to tagged triarylphosphines and detected by Western blotting with short exposure times (seconds to minutes). This represents over a million-fold signal amplification in comparison to using radioactive labeling methods. Using rational prediction analysis to recognize putative internal myristoylation sites in caspase-cleaved proteins combined with our nonradioactive chemical detection method, we identify 5 new post-translationally myristoylatable proteins (PKCε, CD-IC2, Bap31, MST3, and the catalytic subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase). We also demonstrate that 15 proteins undergo post-translational myristoylation in apoptotic Jurkat T cells. This suggests that post-translational myristoylation of caspase-cleaved proteins represents a novel mechanism widely used to regulate cell death.

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