The gastrointestinal tract presents a formidable barrier for pathogens to initiate infection. Despite this barrier, enteroviruses, including coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), successfully penetrate the intestine to initiate infection and spread systemically prior to shedding in stool. However, the effect of the gastrointestinal barrier on CVB3 population dynamics is relatively unexplored, nor are the selective pressures acting on CVB3 in the intestine well-characterized. To examine viral population dynamics in orally infected mice, we produced over one hundred CVB3 viruses harboring unique nine nucleotide “barcodes.” Using this collection of barcoded viruses, we found diverse viral populations throughout each mouse within the first day post-infection, but by 48 hours the viral populations were dominated by less than three barcoded viruses in intestinal and extra-intestinal tissues. Using light-sensitive viruses to track replication status, we found diverse viruses had replicated prior to loss of diversity. Sequencing whole viral genomes from samples later in infection did not reveal detectable viral adaptations. Surprisingly, orally inoculated CVB3 was detectable in pancreas and liver as soon as 20 minutes post inoculation, indicating rapid systemic dissemination. These results suggest rapid dissemination of diverse viral populations, followed by a major restriction in population diversity and monopolization in all examined tissues. These results underscore a complex dynamic between dissemination and clearance for an enteric virus.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)