“Not just data — reality” [IBM AD.] Before the evolution of the art of medical practice into clinical science, the acceptance of medical opinions depended on the prestige and position of the person who voiced them. The “Herr Professor” of the community needed only indicate that his personal observations led him to a particular conclusion to have that conclusion accepted. The wisdom and experience of the leading specialists was considered to be the best possible basis for a proper technical judgment. It was assumed that only somebody with the expert's unique qualifications was in a position to know and understand ….
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