Reduced task-evoked pupillary response in preparation for an executive cognitive control response among individuals across the psychosis spectrum

Tatiana Karpouzian-Rogers, John A Sweeney, Leah H. Rubin, Jennifer McDowell, Brett A. Clementz, Elliot Gershon, Matcheri S. Keshavan, Godfrey D. Pearlson, Carol A. Tamminga, James L. Reilly

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Task-evoked pupillary response (TEPR) is a measure of physiological arousal modulated by cognitive demand. Healthy individuals demonstrate greater TEPR prior to correct versus error antisaccade trials and correct antisaccade versus visually guided saccade (VGS) trials. The relationship between TEPR and antisaccade performance in individuals with psychotic disorders and their relatives has not been investigated. Probands with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, psychotic bipolar disorder, their first-degree relatives, and controls from the B-SNIP study completed antisaccade and VGS tasks. TEPR prior to execution of responses on these tasks was evaluated among controls compared to probands and relatives according to diagnostic groups and neurobiologically defined subgroups (biotypes). Controls demonstrated greater TEPR on antisaccade correct versus error versus VGS trials. TEPR was not differentiated between antisaccade correct versus error trials in bipolar or schizophrenia probands, though was greater on antisaccade compared to prosaccade trials. There was no modulation of TEPR in schizoaffective probands. Relatives of schizophrenia and schizoaffective probands and those with elevated psychosis spectrum traits failed to demonstrate differential TEPR on antisaccade correct versus error trials. No proband or relative biotypes demonstrated differential TEPR on antisaccade correct versus error trials, and only proband biotype 3 and relative biotypes 3 and 2 demonstrated greater TEPR on antisaccade versus VGS trials. Our findings suggest that aberrant modulation of preparatory activity prior to saccade execution contributes to impaired executive cognitive control across the psychosis spectrum, including nonpsychotic relatives with elevated clinical risk. Reduced pupillary modulation under cognitive challenge may thus be a biomarker for the psychosis phenotype.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)79-88
Number of pages10
JournalSchizophrenia Research
Volume248
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2022

Keywords

  • Bipolar disorder
  • Inhibitory control
  • Pupillary modulation
  • Schizoaffective disorder
  • Schizophrenia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry

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