Accumulating evidence suggests that intestinal bacteria promote enteric virus infection in mice. For example, previous work demonstrated that antibiotic treatment of mice prior to oral infection with poliovirus reduced viral replication and pathogenesis. Here we examined the effect of antibiotic treatment on infection with coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), a picornavirus closely related to poliovirus. We treated mice with a mixture of five antibiotics to deplete host microbiota and examined CVB3 replication and pathogenesis following oral inoculation. We found that, like poliovirus, CVB3 shedding and pathogenesis were reduced in antibiotic-treated mice. While treatment with just two antibiotics, vancomycin and ampicillin, was sufficient to reduce CVB3 replication and pathogenesis, this treatment had no effect on poliovirus. Quantity and composition of bacterial communities were altered by treatment with the five antibiotic cocktail and by treatment with vancomycin and ampicillin. To determine whether more subtle changes in bacterial populations impact viral replication, we examined viral infection in mice treated with milder antibiotic regimens. Mice treated with one-tenth the concentration of the normal antibiotic cocktail supported replication of poliovirus but not CVB3. Importantly, a single dose of one antibiotic, streptomycin, was sufficient to reduce CVB3 shedding and pathogenesis, while having no effect on poliovirus shedding and pathogenesis. Overall, replication and pathogenesis of CVB3 is more sensitive to antibiotic treatment than poliovirus, indicating that closely related viruses may differ in their reliance on microbiota. Importance Recent data indicate that intestinal bacteria promote intestinal infection of several enteric viruses. Here we show that coxsackievirus, an enteric virus in the picornavirus family, also relies on microbiota for intestinal replication and pathogenesis. Relatively minor depletion of the microbiota was sufficient to decrease coxsackievirus infection, while poliovirus infection was unaffected. Surprisingly, a single dose of one antibiotic was sufficient to reduce coxsackievirus infection. Therefore, these data indicate that microbiota can influence enteric virus infection through distinct mechanisms, even for closely related viruses.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)