The relationship between the bone and muscles of mastication in hemifacial microsomia was studied using three-dimensional volumetric computed tomography scans and image processing techniques. High resolution head computed tomography scans were obtained from 31 patients with unilateral hemifacial microsomia and eight normal patients. Using three-dimensional volume renderings of bone, mandibular deformities in patients with hemifacial microsomia were classified using the Pruzansky system. For each patient, specific craniofacial bones (temporal bone, maxilla mandible) and the muscles of mastication (masseter, temporalis and lateral and medial pterygoid) were segmented bilaterally from the image volume for independent display and volume measurement. Volumes were expressed as the ratio of the affected: unaffected sides. For the masseter and temporalis, the relationship between muscular hypoplasia and osseous hypoplasia in its origin and insertion was studied by plotting affected:unaffected bone volume as a function of affected:unaffected muscle volume for each muscle, bone of origin, bone of insertion triplet. The volumes of the pterygoid muscles were compared with hemimandibular volumes. The precision of object segmentations was examined by repetitive definition tasks, whereas the accuracy of volume measurement was tested by scanning custom-made phantom objects and comparing digital to physical object volume measurements. Volume measurements performed using these techniques were both accurate and precise. In hemifacial microsomia, the extent of hypoplasia of specific muscles of mastication predicted the extent of dysplasia in their osseous origin and insertion. However, the reverse was not true. The extent of hypoplasia of the facial bones did not necessarily predict the extent of hypoplasia in the attached muscles of mastication. Pruzansky grade of the mandible described the degree of mandibular hypoplasia on the affected side, but was inconsistent in its prediction of volume decrease of the other facial bone.
ASJC Scopus subject areas