Although there is an established bidirectional relationship between heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and liver disease, the association between heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and liver diseases, such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), has not been well explored. In this paper, the authors provide an in-depth review of the relationship between HFpEF and NAFLD and propose 3 NAFLD-related HFpEF phenotypes (obstructive HFpEF, metabolic HFpEF, and advanced liver fibrosis HFpEF). The authors also discuss diagnostic challenges related to the concurrent presence of NAFLD and HFpEF and offer several treatment options for NAFLD-related HFpEF phenotypes. The authors propose that NAFLD-related HFpEF should be recognized as a distinct HFpEF phenotype.
- heart failure
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine