BACKGROUND: Remnant lipoproteins (RLPs), the triglyceride-enriched precursors to low-density lipoprotein, are an emerging risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). We sought to determine the association of RLP cholesterol (RLP-C) levels with incident CHD in 2 diverse, prospective, longitudinal observational US cohorts.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed cholesterol levels from serum lipoprotein samples separated via density gradient ultracentrifugation in 4114 US black participants (mean age 53.8 years, 64% women) from the Jackson Heart Study and a random sample of 818 predominantly white participants (mean age 57.3 years, 52% women) from the Framingham Offspring Cohort Study. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for RLP-C (the sum of very low-density lipoprotein3 cholesterol and intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol) were derived to estimate associations with incident CHD events consisting of myocardial infarction, CHD death, and revascularizations for each cohort separately and as a combined population. There were 146 CHD events in the combined population. After adjustments for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, blood pressure, diabetes, and lipid-lowering therapy for the combined population, RLP-C (HR 1.23 per 1-SD increase, 95% CI 1.06-1.42, P<0.01) and intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HR 1.26 per 1-SD increase, 95% CI 1.08-1.47, P<0.01) predicted CHD during an 8-year follow-up. Associations were attenuated by high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and ultimately lost significance with inclusion of real low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which excludes Lp(a) and IDL cholesterol fractions. Similar associations were seen in multivariable analyses within each cohort.
CONCLUSION: RLP-C levels are predictive of incident CHD in this diverse group of primary prevention subjects. Interventions aimed at reducing RLP-C to prevent CHD warrant further intensive investigation.
CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00415415.
- coronary heart disease
- primary prevention
- remnant lipoprotein cholesterol
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine