Purpose of review: Acute renal failure (ARF) is a syndrome that occurs when there is a sudden decline in the glomerular filtration rate. The purpose of this review is to examine new developments and clinical applications of renal replacement therapies including hemodialysis, continuous renal replacement therapy, the bioartificial kidney, and peritoneal dialysis in the management of this complicated syndrome. Recent findings: New developments in hemodialysis include in-line hematocrit monitoring and improved biocompatible dialyzer membranes. While recent studies indicate that increased delivery of dialysis improves the outcome of patients with ARF, the optimal regimen of intermittent dialysis or continuous renal replacement therapy remains to be determined. The bioartificial kidney, combining hemofiltration with a device containing human tubular cells, is currently in clinical trials and represents another alternative in the management of ARF. In peritoneal dialysis, new solutions using icodextrin may improve fluid removal and blood pressure. Summary: The optimal choice of renal replacement therapy depends on marry factors. Use of new options in renal replacement therapy and early initiation of dialysis may help to improve survival and outcome of patients with ARF.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health