Repeatability and reproducibility of variable flip angle T 1 quantification in the prostate at 3 T

Xinran Zhong, Sepideh Shakeri, Dapeng Liu, James Sayre, Steven S. Raman, Holden H. Wu, Kyunghyun Sung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background: Variable flip angle (VFA) imaging is widely used for the estimation of T 1 relaxation in the prostate, but may have limited repeatability and reproducibility due to its sensitivity to B 1 + inhomogeneity. Purpose: To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of prostate T 1 estimation with and without compensating for B 1 + variation. Study Type: Prospective. Population: Twenty-one volunteers were prospectively recruited and scanned twice on two 3 T MRI scanners, resulting in 84 VFA T 1 exams. Field Strength/Sequence: 3 T/2D saturated turbo fast low angle shot (FLASH) and 3D dual-echo FLASH. Assessment: Two B 1 + mapping techniques, including reference region VFA (RR-VFA) and saturated turbo FLASH (satTFL), were used for B 1 + correction, and T 1 maps with and without B 1 + correction were tested for intrascanner repeatability and interscanner reproducibility. Volumetric regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn on the transition zone, peripheral zone of the prostate, and the obturator internus left and right muscles in the corresponding slices. Statistical Tests: The average T 1 within each ROI for each scan was compared for both intra- and interscanner variability using concordance correlation coefficient and a Bland–Altman plot. Results: Both RR-VFA-corrected T 1 and satTFL-corrected T 1 showed higher intra- and interscanner correlation (0.89/0.87 and 0.87/0.84, respectively) than VFA T 1 (0.84 and 0.74). Bland–Altman plots showed that VFA T 1 had wider 95% limits of agreement and a larger range of T 1 for each tissue compared with T 1 with B 1 + correction. Data Conclusion: The application of B 1 + correction (both RR-VFA and satTFL) to VFA T 1 results in more repeatable and reproducible T 1 estimation than VFA T 1 . This can potentially provide improved quantification of the prostate dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI parameters. Level of Evidence 1. Technical Efficacy Stage 1. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1730-1735
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2019
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


Dive into the research topics of 'Repeatability and reproducibility of variable flip angle T 1 quantification in the prostate at 3 T'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this