Residual neuromuscular blockade at extubation

A randomized comparison of sugammadex and neostigmine reversal of rocuronium-induced blockade in patients undergoing abdominal surgery

Daniel Sabo, R. Kevin Jones, James Berry, Tod Sloan, Jin Yi Chen, Jovino B. Morte, Scott Groudine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Residual neuromuscular blockade (NMB) is associated with increased risk of post-operative critical respiratory events. We compared incidence of residual NMB at tracheal extubation after reversal of rocuroniuminduced NMB with sugammadex versus neostigmine. Methods: Adult patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists Class 1-3, scheduled to undergo open abdominal surgery were included. Patients were randomized to receive sugammadex 4.0 mg/kg at ≥1-2 posttetanic counts after last rocuronium dose, or neostigmine 50mg/kg + glycopyrrolate 10mg/kg, according to usual care practices at each institution. Neuromuscular function was assessed using TOF-Watch® SX. Anesthesiologists were blinded to the TOF-Watch recording, except to ask the TOF-Watch operator whether ≥1 PTC had been reached before administering reversal. Use of a peripheral nerve stimulator was permitted. Clinical criteria defined by the institution were used to determine when to perform extubation. Primary efficacy variable was incidence of residual NMB (train-of-four [TOF] ratio <0.9) at extubation. Safety parameters were assessed by a blinded safety assessor. Results: The intent-to-treat group comprised 97 patients (sugammadex, n=51; neostigmine, n=46). Among patients with valid TOF data, a TOF ratio of ≥0.9 was reached at or before extubation in 48 of 50 (96.0%) sugammadex and 17 of 43 (39.5%) neostigmine patients (P<0.0001). One sugammadex (2.0%) and 15 neostigmine patients (34.9%) were extubated at TOF ratios ≤0.7. Median (95% CI) time from study drug administration to recovery to a TOF ratio ≥0.9 was 2.0 (1.8-2.5) minutes for sugammadex (n=49) versus 8.0 (3.8-16.5) minutes for neostigmine (n=18) (P<0.0001). Safety was comparable between groups, with no clinical evidence of recurrence of NMB. Conclusions: Significantly more sugammadex-treated patients recovered to a TOF ratio ≥0.9 at extubation and did so significantly faster than neostigmine-treated patients. This study confirms that sugammadex is more effective than neostigmine in reducing potential for residual blockade in the absence of objective NMB monitoring.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Anesthesia and Clinical Research
Volume2
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2011

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Delayed Emergence from Anesthesia
Neostigmine
Neuromuscular Blockade
Safety
Neuromuscular Monitoring
Glycopyrrolate
Airway Extubation
Factor IX
Time and Motion Studies
Sugammadex
rocuronium
Incidence
Peripheral Nerves

Keywords

  • Glycopyrrolate
  • Neostigmine
  • Residual neuromuscular blockade
  • Rocuronium
  • Sugammadex
  • TOF-Watch® SX

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Cite this

Residual neuromuscular blockade at extubation : A randomized comparison of sugammadex and neostigmine reversal of rocuronium-induced blockade in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. / Sabo, Daniel; Jones, R. Kevin; Berry, James; Sloan, Tod; Chen, Jin Yi; Morte, Jovino B.; Groudine, Scott.

In: Journal of Anesthesia and Clinical Research, Vol. 2, No. 6, 01.06.2011.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background: Residual neuromuscular blockade (NMB) is associated with increased risk of post-operative critical respiratory events. We compared incidence of residual NMB at tracheal extubation after reversal of rocuroniuminduced NMB with sugammadex versus neostigmine. Methods: Adult patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists Class 1-3, scheduled to undergo open abdominal surgery were included. Patients were randomized to receive sugammadex 4.0 mg/kg at ≥1-2 posttetanic counts after last rocuronium dose, or neostigmine 50mg/kg + glycopyrrolate 10mg/kg, according to usual care practices at each institution. Neuromuscular function was assessed using TOF-Watch{\circledR} SX. Anesthesiologists were blinded to the TOF-Watch recording, except to ask the TOF-Watch operator whether ≥1 PTC had been reached before administering reversal. Use of a peripheral nerve stimulator was permitted. Clinical criteria defined by the institution were used to determine when to perform extubation. Primary efficacy variable was incidence of residual NMB (train-of-four [TOF] ratio <0.9) at extubation. Safety parameters were assessed by a blinded safety assessor. Results: The intent-to-treat group comprised 97 patients (sugammadex, n=51; neostigmine, n=46). Among patients with valid TOF data, a TOF ratio of ≥0.9 was reached at or before extubation in 48 of 50 (96.0{\%}) sugammadex and 17 of 43 (39.5{\%}) neostigmine patients (P<0.0001). One sugammadex (2.0{\%}) and 15 neostigmine patients (34.9{\%}) were extubated at TOF ratios ≤0.7. Median (95{\%} CI) time from study drug administration to recovery to a TOF ratio ≥0.9 was 2.0 (1.8-2.5) minutes for sugammadex (n=49) versus 8.0 (3.8-16.5) minutes for neostigmine (n=18) (P<0.0001). Safety was comparable between groups, with no clinical evidence of recurrence of NMB. Conclusions: Significantly more sugammadex-treated patients recovered to a TOF ratio ≥0.9 at extubation and did so significantly faster than neostigmine-treated patients. This study confirms that sugammadex is more effective than neostigmine in reducing potential for residual blockade in the absence of objective NMB monitoring.",
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T2 - A randomized comparison of sugammadex and neostigmine reversal of rocuronium-induced blockade in patients undergoing abdominal surgery

AU - Sabo, Daniel

AU - Jones, R. Kevin

AU - Berry, James

AU - Sloan, Tod

AU - Chen, Jin Yi

AU - Morte, Jovino B.

AU - Groudine, Scott

PY - 2011/6/1

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N2 - Background: Residual neuromuscular blockade (NMB) is associated with increased risk of post-operative critical respiratory events. We compared incidence of residual NMB at tracheal extubation after reversal of rocuroniuminduced NMB with sugammadex versus neostigmine. Methods: Adult patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists Class 1-3, scheduled to undergo open abdominal surgery were included. Patients were randomized to receive sugammadex 4.0 mg/kg at ≥1-2 posttetanic counts after last rocuronium dose, or neostigmine 50mg/kg + glycopyrrolate 10mg/kg, according to usual care practices at each institution. Neuromuscular function was assessed using TOF-Watch® SX. Anesthesiologists were blinded to the TOF-Watch recording, except to ask the TOF-Watch operator whether ≥1 PTC had been reached before administering reversal. Use of a peripheral nerve stimulator was permitted. Clinical criteria defined by the institution were used to determine when to perform extubation. Primary efficacy variable was incidence of residual NMB (train-of-four [TOF] ratio <0.9) at extubation. Safety parameters were assessed by a blinded safety assessor. Results: The intent-to-treat group comprised 97 patients (sugammadex, n=51; neostigmine, n=46). Among patients with valid TOF data, a TOF ratio of ≥0.9 was reached at or before extubation in 48 of 50 (96.0%) sugammadex and 17 of 43 (39.5%) neostigmine patients (P<0.0001). One sugammadex (2.0%) and 15 neostigmine patients (34.9%) were extubated at TOF ratios ≤0.7. Median (95% CI) time from study drug administration to recovery to a TOF ratio ≥0.9 was 2.0 (1.8-2.5) minutes for sugammadex (n=49) versus 8.0 (3.8-16.5) minutes for neostigmine (n=18) (P<0.0001). Safety was comparable between groups, with no clinical evidence of recurrence of NMB. Conclusions: Significantly more sugammadex-treated patients recovered to a TOF ratio ≥0.9 at extubation and did so significantly faster than neostigmine-treated patients. This study confirms that sugammadex is more effective than neostigmine in reducing potential for residual blockade in the absence of objective NMB monitoring.

AB - Background: Residual neuromuscular blockade (NMB) is associated with increased risk of post-operative critical respiratory events. We compared incidence of residual NMB at tracheal extubation after reversal of rocuroniuminduced NMB with sugammadex versus neostigmine. Methods: Adult patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists Class 1-3, scheduled to undergo open abdominal surgery were included. Patients were randomized to receive sugammadex 4.0 mg/kg at ≥1-2 posttetanic counts after last rocuronium dose, or neostigmine 50mg/kg + glycopyrrolate 10mg/kg, according to usual care practices at each institution. Neuromuscular function was assessed using TOF-Watch® SX. Anesthesiologists were blinded to the TOF-Watch recording, except to ask the TOF-Watch operator whether ≥1 PTC had been reached before administering reversal. Use of a peripheral nerve stimulator was permitted. Clinical criteria defined by the institution were used to determine when to perform extubation. Primary efficacy variable was incidence of residual NMB (train-of-four [TOF] ratio <0.9) at extubation. Safety parameters were assessed by a blinded safety assessor. Results: The intent-to-treat group comprised 97 patients (sugammadex, n=51; neostigmine, n=46). Among patients with valid TOF data, a TOF ratio of ≥0.9 was reached at or before extubation in 48 of 50 (96.0%) sugammadex and 17 of 43 (39.5%) neostigmine patients (P<0.0001). One sugammadex (2.0%) and 15 neostigmine patients (34.9%) were extubated at TOF ratios ≤0.7. Median (95% CI) time from study drug administration to recovery to a TOF ratio ≥0.9 was 2.0 (1.8-2.5) minutes for sugammadex (n=49) versus 8.0 (3.8-16.5) minutes for neostigmine (n=18) (P<0.0001). Safety was comparable between groups, with no clinical evidence of recurrence of NMB. Conclusions: Significantly more sugammadex-treated patients recovered to a TOF ratio ≥0.9 at extubation and did so significantly faster than neostigmine-treated patients. This study confirms that sugammadex is more effective than neostigmine in reducing potential for residual blockade in the absence of objective NMB monitoring.

KW - Glycopyrrolate

KW - Neostigmine

KW - Residual neuromuscular blockade

KW - Rocuronium

KW - Sugammadex

KW - TOF-Watch® SX

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