Review of the Current Medical and Surgical Treatment Options for Microstomia in Patients With Scleroderma

Cristian D. Gonzalez, Jarod John Pamatmat, Jake C. Hutto, Heather W. Goff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: Most patients with scleroderma suffer from microstomia, which can have debilitating consequences on their quality of life. Unfortunately, treatment options remain limited. No specific guidelines exist; hence, microstomia remains a challenge to treat in this patient population. OBJECTIVE: This review aims to evaluate the different medical and surgical treatment modalities currently available for microstomia in patients with scleroderma and make recommendations for future research. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A search of PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and Ovid Embase was conducted to identify articles discussing the treatment of microstomia in scleroderma. Twenty articles discussing surgical therapy and one article discussing medical therapy were reviewed. RESULTS: Mostly because of a scarcity of high-level evidence, no individual therapy has documented long-term efficacy. Some treatments demonstrate positive results and warrant further research. CONCLUSION: Given the variability of results, specific recommendations for the treatment of microstomia in patients with scleroderma are difficult to establish. A multifaceted approach that includes surgical and medical therapy is likely the best option to improve oral aperture in this patient population. Surgical treatments such as neurotoxins, autologous fat grafting, and ultraviolet A1 phototherapy may hold the most potential for improvement.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)780-784
Number of pages5
JournalDermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2021
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Dermatology


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